It is very common among the candidates for public office the concern with the interpretation of texts. This is because they lack specific information regarding this constant task in evidence related to public tenders.
Therefore, here are some details that may help in answering questions related to texts.
TEXT – is a set of ideas organized and related to each other, forming a significant whole capable of producing COMMUNICATIVE INTERACTION (ability to CODIFY and DECODE).
CONTEXT – a text consists of several sentences. In each of them, there is some information that makes it connect with the previous and / or later, creating conditions for structuring the content to be transmitted. This interconnection is called CONTEXT. It is noted that the relationship between sentences is so great that if a sentence is taken from its original context and analyzed separately, it may have a different meaning than the initial one.
INTERTEXT – commonly, the texts present direct or indirect references to other authors through citations. This type of resource is called INTERTEXT.
TEXT INTERPRETATION – The first objective of an interpretation of a text is the identification of its main idea. From there, we find the secondary ideas, or grounds, the arguments, or explanations, that lead to the clarification of the questions presented in the test.
Usually, in a test, the candidate is invited to:
1. Identify – is to recognize the fundamental elements of an argument, of a process, of a time (in this case, we look for verbs and adverbs, which define time).
2. COMPARE – is to discover the relations of similarity or differences between the situations of the text.
3. COMMENT – is to relate the content presented with a reality, giving an opinion about it.
4. SUMMARY – is to focus the central and / or secondary ideas in a single paragraph.
5. PARAPHRASE – is to rewrite the text with other words.
BASIC CONDITIONS FOR INTERPRETING
It is necessary to:
a) Historical – literary knowledge (schools and literary genres, structure of the text), reading and practice;
b) Grammar, stylistic (qualities of the text) and semantic knowledge;
NOTE – in semantics (meaning of words) include: homonyms and paronyms, denotation and connotation, synonymy and antonyms, polysemy, figures of language, among others.
(c) ability to observe and synthesize and
d) Ability to reason.
It is very common, more than imagined, the occurrence of errors of interpretation. The most frequent are:
a) Extrapolation (travel)
It occurs when one leaves the context, adding ideas that are not in the text, either by prior knowledge of the theme or by imagination.
It is the opposite of extrapolation. Only one aspect is overlooked, forgetting that a text is a set of ideas, which may be insufficient for the total understanding of the developed theme.
Not infrequently, the text presents opposing ideas to the candidate, making him draw the wrong conclusions and, consequently, misleading the question.
NOTE – Many people think that there is the writer’s point of view and the reader’s point of view. It may be that they exist, but in any competition, what should be taken into account is what the AUTHOR SAYS and nothing more.
COHESION – is the use of syntax mechanism that relate words, sentences, sentences and / or paragraphs to each other. In other words, cohesion occurs when, through a relative pronoun, a conjunction (NEXOS), or an atonal oblique pronoun, there is a correct relationship between what is said and what has already been said.
NOTE – There are many errors of cohesion in everyday life, and among them is the misuse of the relative pronoun and the unstressed oblique pronoun. This depends on the regency of the verb; that of his antecedent. It should also be remembered that relative pronouns each have a semantic value, and so the need for adequacy to the antecedent.
Relative pronouns are very important in the interpretation of text, since their incorrect use brings with them errors of cohesion. Therefore, it must be taken into account that there is a relative pronoun appropriate to each circumstance, namely:
- WHAT (NEUTRAL) – RELATES TO ANY BACKGROUND. BUT IT DEPENDS ON THE PHRASE CONDITIONS.
- WHICH (NEUTRAL) IDEN THE ABOVE.
- WHO (PERSON)
- WHOSE (POSSIBLE) – BEFORE IT, APPEARS THE OWNER AND THEN, THE OBJECT OWNED.
- HOW (MODE)
- WHERE (PLACE)
- HOW LONG)
- HOW MUCH (AMOUNT)
Spoke everything HOW wanted (correct)
He said everything he wanted (wrong – before WHAT, should show O).
• VICIOS OF LANGUAGE – there are the classic vices of language (BARBARISM, SOLECISM, CACOPHONE …); in everyday life, however, there are expressions that are misused, and, by virtue of this habit, serious mistakes are made, such as:
– “He was at risk of life,” when the truth was the risk of death.
“Sir, I saw you yesterday.” In this case, the correct correct atonal oblique pronoun is 0.
– “At the bar:” SEE ME coffee “. In addition to the mispronunciation of the pronoun, there is misuse